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Dr Archik - Best Orthopedic Surgeon/Doctors Clinic In Mumbai
Dr.Shreedhar Archik is an orthopedist, orthopedic surgeon and total joint surgeon in Dadar West, Mumbai and has an experience of 21 years in these fields.Dr.Shreedhar Archik practices at Dr. Shreedhar Archik’s Care Clinic in Dadar West, Mumbai, Global Hospital in Parel, Mumbai, Lilavati Hospital, Bandra West, Mumbai and Hinduja Healthcare Surgical, Khar West, Mumbai
Dr. Archik was Awarded M.Sc in orthopedics by the Oxford University for pioneering work in the field of limb lengthening in the year 1995.His special interests are joint replacements, spine and management of complex trauma.
No one really gets to realize how important a role the bones and limbs play in one’s life until and unless one requires fracture treatment or trauma surgery. It is painful to say the least and unfortunately, the modern lifestyle we are leading has exposed every person, irrespective of their age group, to such injuries. Problems in joints have become common and road accidents are on the rise. Nevertheless, if you are in Mumbai, expert treatment is readily available at Dr.Archik’s Orthopedic Care Clinic as it is one of the finest orthopedic Clinics/Hospitals/Center Mumbai has to offer.

This fractures care clinic run by Dr. Shreedhar Archik offers trauma treatment, joint replacement, spine surgery and almost all kinds of surgeries that have got anything to do with joints or bones. Dr. Sreedhar comes armed with years of experience and expertise and this is why, when you have a query about best Orthopedic Doctors/surgeon Mumbai, you can trust him without any second thoughts. The most relaxing thing about the clinic is that it brings the best of technology and personal touch to the patient and thus, one need not worry about getting hasty or thoughtless diagnosis.

Whether you are searching for orthopedic surgery Mumbai or knee replacement surgery Mumbai, you can be assured of getting treated at a world-class facility center. Even the sensitive surgery cases related to old patients get the most sophisticated and gentle treatment at the hands of Dr. Shreedhar Archik. Last but not the least, the most sensitive trauma surgeries that scare people are also dealt with utmost care and accuracy. So, you will not have to bother looking for joint Doctors Hospitals/Clinics Mumbai finding an efficient hip replacement doctors/surgeon as your search for the best stops at Dr. Archik’s Orthopedic Care Clinic.

Patient Testimonials

  • Prashant Chirde
    “It’s very nice experience and feeling blessed as my treatment with super specialist.”
  • Abhijit Roy
    “He is a very amiable person and gives reasonable time to understand the problem. His diagnosis is very precise, I am happy with the treatment. The doctor is an expert in his field and his behaviour is also very good and polite. Would recommend as one of the best orthopaedics”
  • Ashish Gandhi
    “Excellent. He is very patient and gives proper advise. There are two levels checks basically first checked by a physio and then drsridhar himself.”
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Treatments & Procedures

Health Info

We believe in providing high quality health information to all our patients. Have a look at our health information repository which has been built keeping your information needs in mind. Find numerous health topics written in simple & easy to read language. Increase your understanding of specific health topics with FAQs, videos &other patient-friendly resources. Click below to explore various health topics you may find helpful.

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    Radiculopathy Treatment
    Radiculopathy Treatment

    Radiculopathy at a glance

    • Radiculopathy is a feeling of radiating pain from a compressed or pinched nerve in the spine.

    • Cervical radiculopathy causes pain in the upper extremities and lumbar radiculopathy causes pain in the lower extremities.

    • Radiculopathy is caused by the spinal nerves becoming compressed or pinched by spinal discs or bone material, causing nerve damage.

    • Pain, tingling and numbness in and around the area of the pinched nerve are symptoms of radiculopathy.

    • Treatment options for radiculopathy include pain medications and physical therapy. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    Causes of radiculopathy or pinched nerves

    Radiculopathy is caused by the nerves becoming compressed or pinched between spinal discs. A pinched nerve can be caused by loose material from a ruptured disc becoming lodged in the space between spinal discs, or a herniated disc (a disc that has moved out of place).

    Radiculopathy can also occur during the aging process as bones and discs degenerate over time or from conditions such as arthritis. Additionally, spine injuries can put pressure on spinal nerves.
    Symptoms of pinched nerve

    Radiculopathy can cause pain, tingling and numbness that extend from the damaged nerve root to the areas surrounding the injury. For example, cervical radiculopathy symptoms can occur in the upper extremities such as the neck, shoulders and even chest and hands.

    Pain from a pinched or compressed nerve in older people is often caused by normal bone degeneration, whereas a ruptured disc or other spinal injury often is the cause of radiculopathy in young people.

    Radiculopathy treatments

    Treatment for a pinched nerve includes pain medication combined with physical therapy. The medications may include anti-inflammatory steroids, which can be injected into the spine or taken orally, or non-steroidal pain medication such as Aleve.

    Physical therapy methods usually include mobilization, exercise and other techniques to alleviate back pain. If the pinched or compressed nerve causes a decrease in motor skills or other significant effects, then surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure.

    If you are experiencing symptoms and pain associated with a pinched nerve, contact our spinal specialists to learn more about the treatment option that is best for you.

    Kyphosis Treatment

    Kyphosis at a glance

    • Kyphosis also known as hunchback or dowager’s hump is an abnormal outward curvature of the upper back (thoracic spine) that causes hunching.

    • Kyphosis can be caused by several conditions affecting the spine; postural kyphosis can be caused from excessive slouching.

    • In addition to the exaggerated curve of the back, symptoms can include back pain or stiffness; in severe cases, kyphosis can affect organs, nerves, and other parts of the body.

    • Treatment for kyphosis may include medication, physical therapy, or spinal surgery.

    Causes of kyphosis

    Kyphosis is caused by vertebrae (which are normally block-shaped) becoming wedge-shaped, causing the spine to curve. This condition develops due to a number of precursor conditions.

    Disc degeneration

    Soft discs between the vertebrae cushion the bones of the spine. With age and/or other spinal conditions, these discs can become brittle or shrink, lessening the support between vertebrae and damaging the bone, also known as degenerating discs.


    Osteoporosis is a bone-thinning disorder most commonly seen in older women. The weakened vertebrae can develop compression fractures even during normal activity. This can alter the shape of the vertebrae.

    Cancer and treatments

    Cancer, as well as treatments for cancer such as radiation or chemotherapy, can weaken the vertebrae, causing compression fractures, which deform the shape of the vertebrae.

    Scheuermann’s disease

    Scheuermann’s disease is a hereditary disorder that can cause kyphosis during the growing period before a child hits puberty. This disease is generally seen more often in boys an girls. It is believed to cause the cartilage that normally turns to bone to develop unevenly, causing the vertebrae to develop into wedge shapes.


    Postural kyphosis does not involve an actual deformity in the spine, but an exaggerated curve in the upper spine can develop from excessive slouching, seen more commonly in teenage girls.

    Birth defects

    I rare cases, a baby’s spinal column does not develop fully or properly in the womb, leading to kyphosis.

    Symptoms of kyphosis

    The most evident symptom of kyphosis is the abnormally curved portion of the upper spine. Mild cases of kyphosis may not have any other symptoms; however, people with kyphosis may experience back pain and stiffness.

    Severe cases of kyphosis can affect the nerves, lungs, organs, and tissue with pain and other issues. In very severe cases, the spine can cause the rib cage to press against the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.

    The extent of effects caused by kyphosis depends on the underlying condition and age.

    Treatment of kyphosis

    The best treatment option for kyphosis depends on the underlying condition and the symptoms.

    Medication options include over-the-counter pain relievers, such as Tylenol, Advil, or Aleve if the condition is related to osteoporosis. There are also special osteoporosis drugs that help strengthen the bones, preventing further damage. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    Stretching and flexibility back exercises can alleviate kyphosis symptoms, as well as improve posture. Wearing a body brace is another option, especially for children whose bones are still growing.

    For severe cases of kyphosis with a severe curve or pinched nerves, surgery may be necessary to correct or reduce the deformity. Spinal fusion, which fuses two or more vertebrae together, is the most common surgery to correct kyphosis.
    Contact us to schedule an appointment with our orthopedic spine specialists if you have a hunched upper back associated with kyphosis and would like to learn more about your treatment options.

    Lordosis Treatment

    Lordosis at a glance

    • Lordosis (also known as swayback) is the abnormal inward curving of the lower back (lumbar spine).

    • Lordosis can be caused by a number of other conditions that affect the spine, as well as poor posture and obesity.

    • Symptoms include the inward curve of the spine, back pain and discomfort.

    • Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, bracing, weight loss, or spinal surgery.

    What is lordosis and what causes it?

    Curves are a normal part of the spine’s structure. These curves help position the head and neck, while also working as shock absorbers during movement of the body.

    When the spine curve arches too far inward, however, it creates a condition called lordosis (or sometimes referred to as swayback). Lordosis can affect the lower back and neck.

    Lordosis can develop from other conditions that affect the spine, as well as bad posture, hip problems, back surgery, or problems with the vertebrae from birth.
    Conditions that cause lordosis to include :

    • Spondylolisthesis which causes one vertebra to slide out of position over another vertebra.

    • Kyphosis which causes an abnormal outward curving of the upper spine.

    • Discitis, an inflammation of the discs that cushion the space between vertebrae, most commonly caused by an infection.

    • Achondroplasia, which stunts normal bone growth (this condition is often associated with dwarfism).

    • Obesity, which causes the spine to support the excessive weight.

    Symptoms of Iordosis

    The primary symptoms of lordosis, or swayback, are the prominence of the buttocks and a pronounced inward curve of the lower spine. This is evidenced by a large gap between the lower back and a hard surface when laying down that does not change when leaning forward.

    Other symptoms can include excess pressure on the spine, causing back pain and discomfort. Symptoms can also include difficulty moving in certain ways, especially if left untreated.

    Treatment of Iordosis

    For most people, lordosis does not cause significant health problems and significant treatment (if at all).

    Treatment for lordosis may include medication to relieve swelling and pain, as well as physical therapy or exercise to help improve spinal flexibility and build muscle strength.

    A back brace may be necessary to support the back or prevent the condition from worsening.

    If obesity is the cause or is worsening the condition, weight loss may be another effective treatment.

    Surgery for extreme lordosis, such as spinal fusion, is rarely performed.
    Sciatica Treatment

    Sciatica at a glance

    • Sciatica is the result of sciatic nerve roots being compressed or pinched as they exit the spinal cord in the lower back.

    • Disc herniation is the most common cause of sciatica. People often use the two terms interchangeably.

    • Sciatica can cause severe pain, numbness and weakness in a leg and/or foot, as well as nagging lower back pain.

    • Treatment usually starts with physical therapy and pain management methods.

    What is sciatica?

    Sciatica is a condition of the sciatic nerve roots, the longest nerves in the body, such as being pinched or compressed as they exit the spinal cord. It is most often associated with pain.

    Symptoms of sciatica

    Sciatica typically causes pain in the lower back or buttocks that continues down the leg and often to the foot. Pain may also be accompanied by weakness, tingling or numbness in the leg. Pain severeness can vary widely, from a mild ache to sharp or excruciating pain.

    Typically, sciatica affects only one side of a person’s body.

    Symptoms vary, depending on which of the sciatic nerve roots are compressed. Sitting or standing for a long time can worsen the symptoms, as can bending the spine in certain ways.

    Causes of sciatica

    Sciatica is usually the result of a herniated or ruptured disc pressing against the sciatic nerve, a large nerve group leading out of the foraminal canals between each vertebra of the spine.

    As one of four spinal nerves exiting the spine, the sciatic nerve runs behind the buttocks and down the back of the thigh. At the knee down, the nerve splits into several other branches.

    In addition to disc herniation, another cause of sciatica is a muscular compression of the sciatic nerve in the buttocks. The most common type of this condition is called piriformis muscle syndrome, named for the buttocks muscle overlying the nerve.

    Sciatica may also be a symptom of spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal, as well as bone spurs or a nerve pinched by an injury.

    Treatments for sciatica

    In order to diagnose sciatica, a physical exam is usually required, often along with X-rays and/or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test.

    Some sciatica sufferers find their pain improves over time with little or no treatment. Many gain immediate relief from lying down or doing exercises that ease pressure on the sciatic nerve.

    As a first course of treatment, many doctors prefer non-surgical alternatives such as physical therapy and pain medication. Spine specialists also emphasize a daily regimen that reduces sitting and increases walking. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    In other cases, doctors may recommend pain management therapy for a herniated disc, in which injections help ease the nerve swelling and pain around the disc.

    In more extreme cases, various types of spinal surgery can reduce or eliminate the disc pressure.

    If you are experiencing sciatica pain and symptoms, contact us to request an appointment with our orthopedic spine specialists to learn which treatment options are best for you.
    Spondylolisthesis Treatment

    Spondylolisthesis at a glance

    • Spondylolisthesis is also called slipped vertebra or shifted spine occurs when a vertebra in the spine slips forward and backward from its correct position in relation to other vertebrae, usually in the lower back.

    • A slipped vertebra is often caused by degenerative spondylolisthesis, which is more common in older people, or spondylolysis more common in younger people.

    • Depending on severity, spondylolisthesis may be treated by medication, physical therapy, or back surgery. If non-symptomatic, a patient may choose to not pursue treatment.
    Causes of spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolithesis can be caused by a vertebra being defective from birth, breaking due to a stress fracture or trauma, or discs degenerating from disease, infection, or old age. A fracture or defect in part of the vertebra (called spondylolysis) can cause the vertebra to slip forword, backward, side-to-side, or over the vertebra below.

    Spondylolysis occurs due to multiple underlying conditions. The two most common are spondylolytic spondylolisthesis and degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    Spondylolysis is more common in younger people, especially athletes, and is usually developed early on and present through life.

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis generally affects people over age 60, occurring due to the natural spinal degeneration process that accompanies aging.

    Symptoms of spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolisthesis symptoms May include :

    • Muscle weakness, numbness, tightness, and/or stiffness.
    • Back pain, often in the lower back.
    • Pain in the buttocks or hips.
    • Pain extending down through the legs or through other extremities (due to pressure on nerve roots).
    • Sciatica

    Spondylolytic spondylolisthesis can sometimes cause weakness in the lower extremities, including the feet (foot drop).

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis can be a crippling condition, with symptoms including those commonly associated with a pinched spinal nerve and inability to walk due to pain.

    With back pain caused by spondylolisthesis, the affected area feels hot to the touch. Patients often describe the sensation as a burning pain, and may also experience sciatica.

    Scoliosis (curvature of the spine) may also be present with spondylolisthesis.

    Other conditions that can develop due to spondylolisthesis are : flat back, a posture change where the lower back becomes straight or flat and spinal instability where a segment of the spine moves too much, either side-to-side, front-to-back, or up and down.

    Treatment of spondylolisthesis

    Diagnosing spondylolisthesis in its earlier stages can help manage the condition, prevent more serious symptoms in the future, and can allow for less-invasive treatments.

    Depending on severity, spondylolisthesis may be treated by medication, physical therapy and pain management, or surgery. If non-symptomatic, a patient may choose to not pursue treatment.

    Medications may help with pain management or treat spondylolisthesis symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory drugs (like Advil) or epidural steroid injections. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    Physical therapy treatment options may include massages, core-strengthening exercises, spinal support (bracing), and traction. Pain management techniques can also include epidural injections.


    If other treatment options do not improve the condition, surgery may be necessary or desirable. Minimally invasive repair surgery may be an option for less-advanced spondylolisthesis cases.

    For advanced degeneration and spinal instability caused by spondylolisthesis, spinal fusion and other techniques may be necessary, including :

    • Percutaneous spinal fusion (a minimally invasive procedure).
    • Simple spinal fusion (without implants).
    • Complex spinal fusion (with implants).

    If you are experiencing back pain or other symptoms associated with spondylolisthesis, contact us to request an appointment our orthopedic spine specialists to learn about treatment options available to you.
    Spondylolysis Treatment

    Spondylolysis at a glance

    • Spondylolysis is a defect or fracture of one or both of the wing-shaped parts of a vertebra (bone in the spine). This can cause the bone to slide forward or backward over another vertebra, a condition called spondylolisthesis.

    • Spondylolysis can be caused by a birth defect, sports injury or trauma.

    • Symptoms of spondylolysis include lower back pain, leg pain, and the feeling of spinal instability.

    • Treatment should start with rest and stretching to alleviate pain, but back surgery may be necessary for severe cases of spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis.

    Causes of spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is commonly caused by a stress fracture or broken vertebra from trauma that never fully heals.

    Spondylolysis can also be caused by a birth defect, in which one or both of the wing-shaped parts of the vertebra is defective from birth.

    Symptoms of spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is more commonly seen in younger people and often affects the lower region of the spine.

    Spondylolysis may not cause any symptoms, but the effects of spondylolysis can include lower back pain and leg pain, which generally feel like muscle strains.

    Sometimes the fracture or break in the vertebra can cause it to slide out of place in relation to the other vertebrae, a condition called spondylolisthesis. This can cause spinal instability, as well as compress the spinal nerves.

    Spondylolytic spondylolisthesis symptoms can include:

    • Back spasms that cause the back and hamstring muscles to feel tight or stiff.

    • Muscle weakness.

    • Pain in the buttocks.

    • Pain extending through the legs or other extremities due to compressed nerves.

    Treatment of spondylolysis

    Home treatment to alleviate pain associated with spondylolysis includes resting after sports and other strenuous activity, strengthening exercises and stretching, and over-the-counter pain medications such as Advil or other ibuprofen. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    An orthopaedic physician can also administer epidural steroid injections to relieve pain or suggest physical therapy options such as massages, core exercises, and spinal support (bracing).

    For advanced spinal instability due to the vertebra sliding out of position (spondylolisthesis), surgery may be necessary. Minimally invasive repair surgery may be an option for less-advanced spondylolisthesis cases, while spinal fusion and other techniques may be necessary for more advanced cases.

    If you are experiencing spondylolysis symptoms from an injury or other trauma, contact us to request an appointment with our spinal specialists to learn more about the treatment options available.
    Spinal Stenosis Treatment

    Spinal stenosis at a glance

    • Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the open spaces within the spine. This can put pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves.

    • Spinal stenosis occurs most often in the lower back or the neck, and is a common and very treatable condition.

    • Common symptoms include difficulty walking, back pain, numbness, and weakness.

    • Treatments include physical therapy, medication and numerous procedures, including nerve blocks and spinal surgery.

    Causes of spinal stenosis

    Spinal stenosis is often caused by every day wear-and-tear changes in the spine related to aging. It may also occur when something happens to compress the available space within the spine.

    Causes of spinal stenosis can include:

    • Herniated discs The cushions between the vertebrae dry out with age. Cracks in the disc’s exterior allow some of the inner material to escape and press on the nerves or spinal cord.

    • Thickened ligaments : Ligaments may become stiff and thick and can bulge into the spinal canal.

    • Overgrowth of bone : Bone spurs can form due to wear and tear on the spinal bone. These can grow into the spinal canal.

    • Spinal injuries : Trauma to the spine may damage the contents of the spinal canal. Swelling of adjacent tissue after back surgery can also put pressure on spinal cord or nerves.

    • Tumors : Abnormal growths that have formed within the spinal cord, within membranes that cover the spinal cord or the space between the vertebrae and spinal cord.

    Symptoms of spinal stenosis

    Some people have no symptoms of spinal stenosis, and it is revealed through diagnostic imaging. When symptoms do occur, they often worsen gradually over time. Depending on the location of the stenosis, symptoms will vary.


    Narrowing in the cervical spine may cause weakness, tingling or even numbness in the arms, hands, leg or foot. Sometimes, nerves to the bowel or bladder can be affected and lead to incontinence.

    Lower back

    Compressed nerves in the lower part of the spine may cause cramping or pain in the legs after standing or walking. The pain may ease when sitting down or bending forward.

    Treatment of spinal stenosis

    Treatment depends on the location and severity of the stenosis. Treatment could include :

    Medication can help to control pain associated with spinal stenosis. These medications may include :

    • Over-the-counter medications to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
    • Antidepressants can help to ease chronic pain.
    • Muscle relaxants can calm muscle spasms.
    • Opioids can reduce pain but can be habit forming.
    • Anti-seizure medications can be used to reduce pain caused by damaged nerves.

    Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.


    Physical therapy can assist in building strength and endurance, and can help to improve balance and stability.

    Steroid injections

    Steroid injections can help reduce inflammation and relieve pressure. However, repeated steroid injections can weaken nearby tissue and bone, so must be used sparingly.


    Back surgery may be considered if more conservative treatments have failed or if symptoms are disabling. The goal of surgery is to relieve pressure on the nerve roots and spinal cord.

    Surgery is helpful in must cases. In some cases, however, some patients may experience no change in symptoms or symptoms may become worse.

    If you have been diagnosed with spinal stenosis and would like to learn more about treatment options to relieve your pain and symptoms, contact us to request an appointment with one of our spinal specialists.

    Herniated Disc Treatment

    Spine herniated disc at a glance

    • Herniated discs are common and can often go undetected.

    • Herniated disc symptoms often disappear after a few days or weeks, while some people may experience disabling or severe pain.

    • Herniated discs tend to occur in patients who are 20 to 50 years old.

    • Most treatments initially focus on reducing pain.

    • Surgery is sometimes needed when severe pain is present or nerve damage is occurring.

    Causes of herniated disc

    Herniated discs are often caused by gradual, aging-related wear and tear. With age, the spinal disks lose some of their water content, making them less flexible and more prone to tearing or rupturing with even a minor strain, twist, or physical injury.

    Lifting a heavy object can also sometimes lead to a herniated disc. Other times, people can’t pinpoint when the exact injury occurred.

    Some factors increase your risk, including being between the ages of 35 and 45, overweight and in a physically demanding occupation that involves lifting, pushing or pulling.
    Symptoms of herniated disc

    In many cases, herniated discs cause few problems. However, some can lead to severe and disabling back pain. In addition, herniated discs may lead to numbness, weakness, and balance or walking problems. Other symptoms may include muscle spasms and deep muscle pain.

    Herniated discs in the neck or upper back can cause pain in the upper arms, neck, and shoulders. When herniated discs are lower in the back they may also cause shooting pain and numbness in the buttock and down the leg. This is called sciatica and is the most common symptom when the problem is located in the lower back. Lower back pain may. also occur, though it is usually less intense than leg pain.

    A rare, hut serious condition known as Cauda Equina Syndrome can develop in the lower back, affecting bowel and bladder function as well as leading to partial paralysis of the lower limbs if left untreated.

    See your medical provider if your neck or back pain travels down your leg or arm, or if it is accompanied by numbness, tingling or weakness.

    Treatment for herniated disc

    In many cases, herniated disc treatment will include medication, physical therapy, and occasionally injections for pain management. Back surgery may be required if these measures fail.

    Non-surgical treatments

    Many patients can he helped with minimally-invasive treatments that may include non-prescription medicine and an exercise plan designed to improve strength and flexibility. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    Non-surgical treatment options include :

    • Non-prescription medicine.
    • Prescription medication.
    • Physical therapy.

    Pain management treatments

    Strategies often include a nerve block or various types of epidurals, a procedure where medicine is placed directly into the spinal area to block pain. The most common approach to treating a herniated disc is addressing the pain caused by the condition.

    Pain Management options include :

    • Caudal-epidural
    • Epidural
    • Transforaminal epidural
    • Selective nerve block

    Surgical treatment

    For herniated discus that requires surgery, the standard operation is a microdiscectomy, an operation to remove the herniated part of a disc. The surgeon performs a microdiscectomy with a microscope or similar device, often as an outpatient procedure. Microdiscectomies have a very good success rate. Disc herniation can recur in up to 10 percent of cases.

    Other surgical options range from nucleus replacement, a new form of surgery still under investigation in which a surgeon replaces the centre part of the disc with an artificial implant to a percutaneous laser discectomy. In which the surgeon makes a small incision, inserts a tiny probe and operates with the aid of x-rays.

    Surgical options for herniated disc include :

    • Laminotomy
    • Laminectomy
    • Microdiscectomy
    • Percutaneous laser discectomy
    • Percutaneous nucleoplasty coblation
    • Transformainal microdiscectomy
    • Nucleus replacement disc stabilization arthroplasty

    If you are experiencing back pain and symptoms of a herniated disc, contact us to request an appointment with our spine specialists to learn about your treatment options.

    Spinal Tumors Treatment

    Spinal tumors at a glance

    • A spinal tumor is a mass or growth of cells in or surrounding the spinal cord and spine.

    • Various types of tumors may occur in the spine.

    • Spinal tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

    • Spinal tumors can affect nerves in the area of the tumor, cause pain, neurological problems and sometimes even paralysis.

    • Spinal tumors can be life threatening or cause permanent disability even if they are not cancerous.

    • Spinal tumors are often treated through a combination of back surgery, medications, chemotherapy and/or radiation. Be sure to talk to your pharmacist before purchasing anti-inflammatories as these medications may be contraindicated as they may interact with other medications and medical conditions.

    Causes of spinal tumours

    While the specific cause of most spinal tumors is not known, experts believe that defective genes may play a role. It’s not clear whether the defective genes are caused by environmental factors, inherited or occur spontaneously. Some spinal tumors are linked to known inherited syndromes, such as von Hippel-Lindau disease and neurofibromatosis.

    The parts of the spine most likely to be affected by a spinal tumor are vertebrae and the spinal cord.

    Types of spinal tumours

    There are several types of spinal tumors, which are classified according to the location in the spine.

    • Intradural-extramedullary tumors
    These tumors develop in the nerve roots that extend out from the spinal cord or in the spinal cord’s arachnoid membrane, and can be cancerous or non-cancerous.

    • Extradural (vertebral) tumors
    Some tumors affecting the vertebrae have spread from another site in the body (i.e. breast, lung, kidney, or prostate). Although the primary cancer is usually diagnosed before the back problems develop, back pain can be the first symptom in those with metastatic spinal tumors. Vertebral tumors can arise from bone cells within the spine.

    • Itramedullary tumors
    Intramedullary tumors can be cancerous or noncancerous, and begin in the supporting cells within the spinal cord.

    Symptoms of spinal tumours

    Signs and symptoms of spine tumors vary depending on the location and type, especially as the tumor develops and affects the nerve roots, blood vessels, bones or spinal cord.

    Back pain is a common symptom of spinal tumors, and pain may spread to the hips, legs or feet. The pain may become more severe over time.
    Keep in mind that back pain has many different causes. Most back pain is not a result of spinal tumors.

    See your doctor if your back pain is persistent and growing progressively worse, if the pain is worse at night, or if it is not activity related. You should seek medical attention if you have a history of cancer and develop back pain. Seek immediate help if you experience progressive muscle weakness or numbness in your legs or have changes in bladder or bowel function.

    Treatment of spinal tumours

    Treatment is coordinated through your team of physicians, including your oncologist, your primary care doctor and surgeon.

    Ideally, the goal of spinal tumor treatment is to eliminate the tumor completely, but this is not always possible due to the risk of permanent damage to the surrounding nerves and organ structures. Treatment will depend on the type of tumor, the patient’s health and age and whether or not the tumor has spread from somewhere else in the body.

    Spinal tumor treatment options include :


    If a small tumor is noncancerous and isn’t growing or pressing on surrounding tissues, your doctor may decide no other treatment is needed except to monitor it closely through periodic scans.


    If the tumor can be removed with minimal risk of nerve damage, your doctor may decide to remove it through surgery. New technology and techniques allow surgeons to remove tumors that were once though inaccessible. Your medical team may use sound waves to break up the tumor and remove the fragments. Not all tumors can be removed completely.

    Radiation therapy

    If a tumor cannot be removed completely, surgery may be followed by radiation therapy. Radiation is often used for metastatic tumors, or when surgery cannot be performed.


    This is a standard treatment for many cancers, and uses medication to destroy the cancerous cells.

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

    This is a new method of radiation therapy that focuses radiation beams on the tumor with pinpoint accuracy.


    Your physician may prescribe corticosteroids to reduce the swelling following surgery or during radiation therapy.

    Scoliosis Treatment

    Scoliosis at a glance

    • Scoliosis is a side-to-side curvature of the spine that forms either in a “C” shape or an “S” shape.

    • Curvature of the spine generally does not require treatment, although bracing or spinal fusion surgery may be required in severe cases.

    Curvature of the spine may also occur with spondylolisthesis in which one vertebra shifts out of position relative to the vertebrae below it.

    Symptoms of scoliosis

    Symptoms of scoliosis are rare but can include :

    • Backaches or lower back pain.
    • Spine fatigue after long periods of sitting or standing.
    • Uneven hips or shoulders.
    • A spine curvature more to one side than the other.

    Scoliosis types & causes

    The most common type cause of scoliosis is what doctors call idiopathic scoliosis, meaning that it has no known cause.

    Idiopathic scoliosis in children younger than three years of age is known as infantile scoliosis. In children ages 4 to 10, it is called juvenile scoliosis, and in ages 11 to 18, it is adolescent scoliosis.

    The cause may be known in other cases :

    • Congenital scoliosis is present a birth and is the result of a baby’s ribs or spine bones not forming properly.

    • Neuromuscular scoliosis is caused by a nervous system problem affecting muscle function such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, and polio.

    Treatments for scoliosis

    Most people with idiopathic scoliosis do not need treatment, although doctors generally recommend a spinal exam twice a year.

    Back braces

    Children sometimes must wear a back brace in order to prevent further curving of the spine while they grow. Back braces work best for children older than age 10.

    Back braces vary in design, and the best kind to use depends on the size and location of the curve. For children and teens, many back braces are adjustable for changes in body growth.

    Unfortunately, braces do not work for treating congenital or neuromuscular scoliosis.

    Additionally, the patient may also need :

    • Emotional support : Wearing a back brace may make children and teens painfully self-conscious of their condition.

    • Physical therapy : Specially trained therapists can help fit the brace correctly and minimize physical and psychological discomfort.


    Sometime spinal surgery is necessary for severe or rapidly worsening scoliosis. An orthopedic surgeon inserts one or two metal rods with hooks and screws to hold the spine in place until the bone heals together.

    To access the spine, the surgeon may make an incision through the back, belly area, or beneath the ribs. Following surgery, the patient may wear a temporary brace.

    Contact us to request an appointment with one of our spinal specialists to learn more about the treatment options available for scoliosis.
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    Sports Injuries Treatment
    Sports Injuries Treatment

    Foot & Heel Pain

    Injuries to the foot can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic which come on gradually often through overuse. We have categorized foot pain injury heel pain, midfoot pain, forefoot pain including pain under the ball of the foot, toe injuries and skin conditions such as athletes foot and blisters. If you have suffered a recent foot injury then you should apply immediate first aid for foot paint. We also explain under which circumstances you should see a doctor.

    Ankle Pain & Achilles Pain

    If you are not sure what your injury is then why not tray our sports injury symptom checker (/symptom-checker) ? Or select from the options below. Ankle injuries are classified as sudden onset (acute ankle injuries) or gradual onset injuries, often referred to as chronic injuries. The most common ankle injury is a sprained ankle. However, there may be other complications that arise from ankle sprains which are not initially diagnosed. If you are unsure of have any of these symptoms then you should seek medical advice.

    Shin & Calf Pain

    Shin pain usually occurs gradual and affects the inside lower part of the shin but can also affect the outside of the shin. Calf pain can be sudden onset or acute such as in a calf strain or it can develop gradually through overuse.

    Knee Pain

    Sudden onset or acute knee injuries are usually the result of twisting or a hard impact and will likely involve ligament, tendon or cartilage joint injury. Read our advice on immediate first aid as well as when you should see a doctor. Pain which comes on gradually can affect the front (anterior), back (posterior), inside (medial) or outside of the knee (lateral knee pain).

    Thigh Pain

    Thigh pain can occur at the back of the thigh as in a hamstring strain or at the front with a quadriceps muscle strain. Most thigh injuries are sudden onset but can also be clinic injuries and occur gradually, especially if an acute injury has not been treated correctly or healed properly.

    Buttock, Hip & Groin Pain

    Buttock hip and groin pain is often connected or might be pain referred from another area such as the lower back. The hip and groin area is one of the most challenging areas of the body to treat by sports injury specialists. The reason for this is that there are a large number of possible structured that can be injured and cause pain in this area and also because most of the structures are very deep within the groin area (including the hip joint).

    Head & Face Injuries

    If you have sustained any kind of head injury it is always advisable to seek medical attention. A direct blow to the head can be a minor injury right through to something more serious or even death.

    Shoulder Pain

    Shoulder injuries can be either acute or chronic depending on when they are diagnosed and how long the pain / disability has been felt for. If you are not sure what your injury is why not check out our symptom checker (/symptom-checker) ! Or use the links below to view specific shoulder injuries. An acute shoulder injury occurs suddenly either through direct impact, over stretching a muscle, tendon or ligament, overusing a muscle or tendon or twisting of the shoulder joint. The top five most common categories of shoulder injury are listed below.

    Arm & Elbow Pain

    Arm and elbow pain covers pain on the outside of the elbow (lateral elbow pain), inside elbow pain (medical elbow pain), pain at the back of the elbow, upper arm pain and forearm pain.

    Wrist & Hand Injuries

    The most common wrist and hand injuries are wrist sprains and fractures (broken wrist or broken finger). Sudden onset injuries are called acute injuries and are usually caused by a fall onto the hand with an outstretched arm or a forced twisting movement. If a broken bone (fracture) is suspected, then always seek medical advice immediately. Gradual onset injuries or chronic injuries occur over a period of time and often cannot be traced back to a single incident or cause.

    Lower Back Pain

    Back pain can be particularly difficult to diagnose due to the complexity and the number of structures and tissues in the lower back that can cause pain. The most common causes are slipped discs and this can sometimes cause leg pain called Sciatica (/sport-injuries/low-back-pain/sciatica). In addition, scoliosis, spinal canal stenosis, spondylitis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, transverse process fracture, facet joint pain and more.

    Abdominal & Chest Pain

    Chest pain in the athlete can be anything from indigestion to a heart attack so if you are at all unsure seek medical advice. Moderate to severe chest injuries should always be assessed by a doctor to ensure the ribs, lungs or other internal organs including the heart have not been affected or damaged. However, in view of the possible consequences from any chest or abdominal injury, if in doubt, always consult a doctor.

    Upper Back & Neck Pain

    Upper back and neck injuries are relatively rare in sport and more often occur from activities of daily living, such as waking up with a wry neck (torticollis). Neck injuries that are sustained in sport must be taken very seriously, especially if they are associated with symptoms of concussion or referred pain into the shoulders and arms.

    General Conditions

    This section covers general medical conditions that do not fit into specific areas of the body.

    Sports Specific Injuries

    Tennis Injuries

    Here we look at some of the most common injuries in the game of Tennis, as well as what you can do to try to prevent tennis injuries. Tennis injuries are often in the upper body, especially due to the forces required to hit the ball over and over again, especially on shots like serves and smashes ! Rotator cuff injuries are common, as are wrist and elbow injuries.

    Skiing Injuries

    Although skiing has a reputation as a dangerous sport, research has shown that general skiing injury rates have reduced by 50% over the last fifteen years. Even so, it is almost as common for a skier to talk about their most recent injury as it is a road runner !
    Rugby Injuries

    Rugby is well known for a high injury rate and this is mostly due to the physicality and contact nature of the sport, coupled with a lack or protective equipment ! In most cases, the only protection a rugby player wears is shin pads and a gum shield, although shoulder padding and padded scrum caps are also available and permitted.

    Ice Hockey Injuries

    Ice hockey is a dangerous sport due to the high speeds, slippery surface, sharp blades and a solid puck traveling at up to 100 miles at hour ! However, players do wear extensive protective gear, including helmets.

    Football (Soccer) Injuries

    Soccer injuries occur predominantly in the legs, although occasionally injuries to the upper body do occur, often through falls or impacts. Soccer injuries may be either acute – where there is one incident that clearly causes the injury, or chronic – where an injury develops gradually.

    Field Hockey Injuries

    Field hockey injuries are similar to other field sports such as soccer due to the sudden bursts of speed and changes of direction.

    Cycling Injuries

    Cycling injuries are either overuse injuries which develop gradually over time because of repeated movement patterns or pressures, or acute, traumatic injuries due to a fall ! These are extremely variable and so not really covered here.

    Cricket Injuries

    Cricket injuries are either acute injuries which occur suddenly such as a torn muscle, or an impact from the ball. Or they can be chronic injuries which occur gradually through overuse.

    Netball Injuries

    Netball injuries can be a mix of both upper and lower limb injuries, as well as acute, impact injuries and gradual, overuse injuries.

    Basketball Injuries

    Basketball injuries are some of the most varied sports injuries ! They commonly range from the finger tip to the toe and everything in between !

    Baseball Injuries

    Baseball injuries tend to usually occur in the shoulder and elbow, due to the high forces involved. This is especially true in pitchers, but other positions, as well as batters may also suffer from this kind of injury.

    Football Injuries

    American Football is an intensive contact sport where serious injuries are not uncommon. However, it is also one of the best protected, due to the amount of body armour and protective headgear the players wear as a mandatory standard.
    Athletics Injuries

    Sprinting injuries

    Muscles strains are common in sprints events, particularly hamstring strain groin strains and calf strains. Sprinters are always pushing the limits of speed and often training as close to the fine line of injury as possible. Injury risk can be mitigated by proper warm up which includes dynamic stretching and strength and conditioning.

    Badminton Injuries

    Badminton injuries are usually overuse injuries which develop from repeated overhead movements. Injuries to the shoulder, elbow, wrist, knees and ankle are common.

    Running Injuries

    Running injuries are usually overuse injuries of the foot, lower leg, knee and hip.


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